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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  May 31, 2014 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT

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♪ >> on this edition for is the may 31st, a u.s. soldier held by the taliban since 2009 is released. defense secretary hagel warns the united states will not look the other way over china's territorial claims. and the minds of killers. next on pbs "news hour weekend." >> pbs "news hour weekend" is made possible by -- lewis b. and louise hirschfeld-coleman, judy and josh weston, joyce b. hail, the wallach family, in memory of miriam and ira d. wallach, the cheryl and philip milstein family, bernard and irene schwartz,
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rosalind p. walter. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america. designing customized, individual, and group retirement products. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support is provided by -- and by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york. >> good evening. thanks for joining us. the only american prisoner being held in afghanistan was released earlier today in exchange for five prisoners held in cuba. 28-year-old bowe bergdahl was captured in 2009, he was turned over to u.s. special forces near the pakistani border. bergdahl is in u.s. military custody in afghanistan and reportedly in good condition. in a statement, president obama called his release a reminder of
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america's unwavering commitment to leave no man behind. joining us now adam entis. what do we know about bowe bergdahl's condition right now? >> right. we've been told by american officials that he's walking on his own. he's in good condition. he was recovered earlier this morning by special operation forces which went to a rendezvous point where they met a group of taliban that were holding him and they handed him over without incident. >> what was that meeting like between him and the soldiers? >> we don't have a lot of details at this point about what that meeting was like. it was brokered by a gutter which has been acting as an intermediary between the u.s. and the taliban in this exchange. so they just literally flew in. it's a point they agreed to meet in eastern afghanistan. the american special operations forces were on helicopters and came into that area, met the taliban, took bergdahl, brought him on the helicopter and took
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him to a u.s. base for evaluation. >> there was something about him scribbling something on a paper plate. what's that about? >> he wasn't sure -- he wasn't sure who had him. so he was asking if that was american special forces, and to which one of the members of the special forces team responded that yes, it was. >> so how unprecedented is such a negotiation? the administration and several people have come out and put out statements saying this was a long time coming. >> right. well, the americans had tried to initiate talks with the taliban directly back in 2011 and 2012. and those broke down. since then, the americans have had no direct contact with the taliban. there was an attempt last summer to try to open a taliban political office in gutter and almost immediately after it opened, it was closed down and kind of an embarrassing moment involving the taliban raising a
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flag that infuriated the government in kabul. since then, it looked like talks were going nowhere until november of last year, when the taliban indicated, again through gutter, that they were interested in having renewed negotiations, but narrowly focused, just on the fate of bergdahl. five taliban afghan detainees in cuba as well. that's really where it became a fast-track. you had a video that was released by the taliban which was considered by the u.s. to be a good will gesture and a sign bergdahl was safe. >> briefly, what do we know about the detainees? >> well, depending on who you talk to, john mccain has identified them as terrorists with blood on their hands. u.s. officials down play their future threat that they represent to the u.s.
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under the terms of the agreement with gutter, they'll be required to say in gutter for a period of at least one year. effectively, gutter has agreed to monitor them and make sure they don't re-enter the fight. >> all right, adam, thanks so much. >> thank you. defense secretary chuck hagel sparred with his chinese counterpart saying china's move to control territory innies asia are destabilizing the region and undermining peace. hagel said the u.s. does not make a position on competing claims between china and its neighbors. >> we firmly oppose any nations use of intimidation, coercion, or the threat of force to assert those claims. the united states will not look the other way when fundamental principles of the international order are being challenged. >> hagel also criticized china for its continuing cyber snooping effort. a chinese military official
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called hagel's accusations groundless, but that he appreciated hagel's candor. the palestinian president has said the formation of a new unity government will be announced monday, backed by hamas and fatah. hamas is considered a terrorist organization by both israel and the west. he told french activists that israel has claimed it will not recognize such a government. in ukraine, clashes continue. this week, the organization for the security and cooperation in europe lost contact with five monitors and the head of the osc said the mission may have to withdraw due to safety concerns. the russian ministry issued a statement today underscoring the importance of having international monitors in ukrin, amid ongoing turmoil between the government and the militia members who want the region to rejoin russia. this past week, a helicopter was
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shot down, killing a top general and a dozen soldiers. we're joined by sabrina of the "new york times." you've been in the border region between on the eastern side of the country, the ukraine story has slid off the front pages. what's the situation on the ground now? >> it's very interesting. on the ground, i think, for a long time, everybody was assuming that putin was going to kind of roll across the border. there was going to be a crimea-style takeover. but instead what we're seeing on the ground is very sort of subtle, essentially on the ground facts that speak very much to russian involvement, but perhaps not kremlin involvement. >> nato said there has been significant pullbacks from russian forces off the border, but you're saying there's quite a few people who might be armed or being supplied by russia still in that region? >> well, again, it's a very fine distinction. so it's not the kremlin, or moscow, but it's a lot of sort of people with russian passports
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coming to ukraine to fight. we were in the border region today of lugansk and saw strong rebel activity. essentially it's its own country out there. there's an assumption that a lot of what's coming through is coming through exactly that area, that's the route line, if you will. >> so that region hardly had anybody voting, quite a few people were intimidated, kept away from the polls. and so do we have a de facto divided ukraine, and how does the president move forward -- the new president move forward with this? >> you know, i think it's very difficult. i think that basically in a way, that the sort of russia and russians are trying to sort of create facts on the ground by having a lot of these fighters come in, you know, some of them are mercenaries from the caulkas us, they're a motley crue of people out there with russian passports. that gives president putin quite a serious bargaining chip, a
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type of security deposit that allows him to keep russian influence over ukraine. gives him a good bargaining position over the new president. >> all right, sabrina, thanks so much. >> thank you. sudanese officials have told the bbc they will free the mother who was sentenced to death for failing to renounce her christian faith. her father was muslim, but she was raised by her christian mother. under sudanese law, children must belong to the religion of their fathers. she gave birth on wednesday while in shackles. her execution was delayed for two years, so she could breast feed her new born baby. she's married to a christian american man. the case has been the subject of international pressure from human rights organization and criticism by the us state departments and other western governments. according to sudanese authorities, she will be released in a few days' time.
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officials in india have arrested five people in connection with the gang rape and murder of two teenage girls. the girls were found on wednesday and two police officers are in custody. according to police, the other three men arrested are cousins from an extended family. activists gathered at the home of the girls today with many demanding the death penalty for those involved, and dozens gathered in new delhi this evening in a candle light vij toil protest the violence. many of the rapes occur when women relieve themselves in the fields, because they lack toilets in their homes. this morning president obama delivered his radio address from children's national medical center in washington, d.c. where he was visiting children treated for asthma and breathing problems. he highlighted the effort of the epa to draw up guidelines for reducing carbon emissions. >> this week, we're unveiling
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glinds to cut down on carbon pollution, smog, and soot that threaten the health of the most vulnerable americans, including children and the elderly. >> the republican response came from the center from wyoming. >> the administration has set out to kill coal and its 800,000 jobs. if it succeeds in death by regulation, we'll all be paying a lot more money for electricity. the guidelines are due to be announced monday. a newly released report by u.s. customs and border protection, suggests that border agents use excessive force against rock throwers and stood in the way of fleeing vehicles to justify the use of deadly force along the u.s. border with mexico. the agency which dedeclined to make the report public, also released a hand book outlining new, more restrictive guidelines on when and how border agents should use force. in cleveland, ohio, a grand jury indicted six police
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officers friday for their roles in a 2012 car chase and shoot-out that left two unarmed people dead. prosecutors say after the night-time chase ended, the patrol officer stood on the hood of the suspect's car and fired at least 15 rounds through the windshield. five were fatal. police fired 137 times, both suspects in the car were black, spurring accusations the killings were racially motivated. a federal investigation is ongoing into the department's practices. the los angeles times is reporting that santa barbara sheriff's deputies did not know elliot rodger was in possession of any weapons during the three separate times they interacted with him in the last year. last friday he went on a rampage killing six and wounding 13 before turning the gun on himself. all of this as officials try to piece together why rodger acted
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the way he did. and victims' families wonder if the tragedy might have been prevented. as miles o'brian reports, scientists too are exploring what may be happening in the mind of rampage killers. this story aired last year, part of a special following the newtown shootings. >> andy was always real playful. >> there you go. >> yes! >> he was a real kind kid. >> hi, daddy! >> how did this sweet kid in the home movies become the murder suspect on the 6:00 news? >> as you said, mostly students and parents meeting up with one another. and i'm sure, so shocked that they just want to see which other friends are out there. >> what made andy williams, then 15, walk into a boys room and
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open fire on his schoolmates, killing two, and injuring 13? >> this one, i think is, eighth grade. >> his father jeff is haunted by the question. >> so he wasn't a quid thkid th infatuated with violence? >> no. not at all. he was a silly clown. you don't expect a silly clown to do something like this, to go kill people. >> class claown. >> the class clown, to be the class killer. >> the mind of a rampage killer can live behind the face of the boy next door. can science shed any light in these darkest of dark places? not much data to go on. from columbine through newtown, in most cases, the shooter ends up dead, by his own hand or by police. but andy williams is one of the few living school rampage
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shooters. >> this is from an inmate at a california correctional facility. >> he called me collect from a payphone inside the prison in the middle of the southern california desert. andy williams is now 27. he's spent 12 years behind bars. take us back to that moment, and if you can tell us what was going on in your mind at the time, that would really help us. >> to me, it was just like enough at the time. at 15, i didn't really think like all that stuff through. i didn't think two people were going to die or 13 people were going to get shot. i thought i would make a lot of noise and the cops would show up. >> county all-star team that he was on for baseball. >> he was a good baseball player, huh? andy moved from maryland with his dad after his parents divorced. he was the new kid at school and even the boys that accepted him, bullied him unmercifully? so he was really going through
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hell? >> new kid and being tormented by the older kids there. >> what do we got? >> we're getting buzzed off of it. >> andy started drinking, smoking pot and taking prescription painkillers. andy had access to a gun. he boasted to his friends that he was planning the rampage. >> it's a volatile mix, but sadly a common one. so what separates a rampage killer from other struggling teens? is it genetics or something in their environment? josh buckles is a harvard neuro scientist searching for the biological roots of violent behavior? >> one of the most infuriating things as a scientist and a person, is this attempt to try to find some diagnostic label, some diagnostic box to put this person into and explain why they did this terrible, terrible thing. >> but as researchers peer into the brains of criminals with
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mris, they're finding faulty wiring. one of the circuits is responsible for higher level thinking with the emotion center which goes into overdrive when the threat is perceived. if the threat is not real, a message is sent to calm down. but if the wiring is faulty, that calming message may not get through. >> in those folks, it seems they're more likely to respond with great activity and emotional arousal when they think they're faced with some kind of threat. >> even in perfectly healthy brains, the prefrontal kortex is not fully developed in the teenage years. but the emig dala is, one reason why teens tend to have bigger emotional swings. now imagine a teen with the early stages of mental illness. >> they are people whose mental
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conditions cause them to amplify the social slights that happen all the time in high school. >> a -- so these are kids who are desperate to be accepted, not loners. they are people who are trying to join groups all the time. but their experience every day is friction. it never works. >> did you feel suicidal? >> absolutely. it was like an eight-month, constant, like, i wonder if things would be better if, if i wasn't in this city, in this state, like, or even on this earth? so in my grand scheme, my grand plan was -- >> andy planned a so-called suicide by cop, expecting the authorities to gun him down. but he had a change of heart at the last minute, dropped the revolver and surrendered. researchers say 50% of rampage
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shooters are suicidal before the carnage. >> we're looking at what's different about those people. one of the things we feel confident about is that there is something different about those people. it's not just a feature of depressi depression. >> take your three fingers, put it on the button. one, two, three, stand for your response. >> he believes one fundamental difference may show up in a deceptively simple test, which he let me try. >> go through the set as quickly as you can. >> it's called a stroop test, developed by john ridley stroop in the 1930s. sounds simple. all i had to do was identify the color i saw on the screen. >> gosh, this is harder than you think. >> you notice right away how you slow down. >> oh, yeah. i don't know why. this shouldn't be that hard. why is that?
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>> that was stroop's big discovery. >> kelp had two groups of people complete stroop tests while their brains were in an mri. one group was depressed. some had attempted suicide. and the other was healthy. he noticed a surprising difference in their brain scans. these are healthy brains doing the stroop test. the red show decrease blood flow. now look at the brains of depressed, suicidal people doing the same test. >> that's very dramatic. >> kelp says their brains seem inclined to focus on one thing, in this case, the word, not the color, and are less flexible. it may mean their brains are wired in a way that makes them fixate on suicidal thoughts. research like this may take
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scientists closer to a means of screening for suicidal tendencies. especially in adolescents who would never admit to it, like andy williams. but the question remains, why does someone who wants to end his own life want to take so many others with him? >> you're looking for a way to change this terrible social reputation you have as a loser, and you land on the idea of shooting people, after many other failed attempts to change your social reputation. >> good evening, ladies and gentlemen. >> often rampage shooters cast themselves as a hollywood villain, the anti-hero, the shooter who opened fire in a movie theater in aurora, colorado, was infatuated from the joker in the batman movies. >> the anti-hero is a respected character, respected through fear. and that feels a lot better to them than dismissed, belittled, insignificant.
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>> better to be infamous than irrelevant. >> better to be infamous than invisible. >> jeff williams had no idea a rampage killer was under his roof. >> why were you holding back from your father? >> i don't know, man. i think i was ashamed to front my failures. >> do you love your son? >> yes, i love my son very much. i do not condone what he did. the way he went about trying to resolve his issues whatsoever. he made a very bad choice. i can't change that. >> research may never give us an easy way to identify a future rampage killer, but it has proven the roots of a rampage run deep, and there are many ingredients in the mix long before the carnage. if only we were better at seeing the signs of trouble. >> listen to miles ohio brian's full interview with kikted
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killer andy williams and see his conversation with the author of the blog post, i am adam lanza's mother. >> that's it for this edition of pbs "news hour weekend." thanks for watching. ♪ >> pbs "news hour weekend" is made possible by -- lewis b. and louise hirschfeld-coleman, judy and josh weston, joyce b. hail, the wallach family, in memory of miriam and ira d. wallach, the cheryl and philip milstein family, bernard and irene schwartz, rosalind p. walter. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america. designing customized, individual, and group retirement products. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support is provided by -- and by the corporation for public broadcasting.
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and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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steves: a selection of ferries make the 50-mile crossing between helsinki and tallinn nearly hourly. because of the ease of this delightful two-hour cruise and the variety a quick trip over to estonia adds to your nordic travels, pairing helsinki and tallinn is a natural. stepping off the boat in tallinn, the capital of estonia, you feel you've traveled a long way culturally from finland. its a mix of east and west. tallinn's nordic lutheran culture and language connect it with stockholm and helsinki, but two centuries of czarist russian rule and nearly 50 years as part of the soviet union have blended in a distinctly russian flavor. fins and estonians share a similar history. first, swedish domination, then russian. then independence after world war i. until 1940, the estonians were about as affluent as the fins, but then estonia was gobbled up by an expanding soviet empire
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and spent the decades after world war ii under communism. when the ussr fell, estonia regained its freedom, and in 2004, it joined the european union. tallinn has modernized at an astounding rate since the fall of the soviet union. its business district shines with the same glass and steel gleam you'll find in any modern city. yet nearby are the rugged and fully intact medieval walls, and the town within these ramparts has a beautifully preserved old-world ambiance. among medieval cities in the north of europe, none are as well preserved as tallinn. the town hall square was a marketplace through the centuries. its fine old buildings are a reminder that tallinn was once an important medieval trading center. today it's a touristy scene, full of people just having fun. through the season, each midday, cruise-ship groups congest the center as they blitz the town in the care of local guides.
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like many tourist zones, tallinn's is a commercial gauntlet. here there's a hokey torture museum, strolling russian dolls, medieval theme restaurants complete with touts, and enthusiastic hawkers of ye olde taste treats. woman: [ laughs ] steves: but just a couple blocks away is, for me, the real attraction of tallinn -- workaday locals enjoying real freedom and better economic times. still-ramshackle courtyards host inviting cafés. bistros serve organic cuisine in a chic patina of old-world-meets new. and just outside the walls, it seems there's no tourism at all. under towering ramparts, the former moat is now a park, perfect for a warm afternoon stroll.
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